Refutation of “Constantine’s Creation of Jesus”

nicaea-iznik

One of the fans of this blog’s Facebook page sent me a pamphlet entitled Constantine’s Creation of Jesus Christ by Kerrie French.

This title alone betrays the book’s conspiracy theme. Reading its first two pages, it became clear to me that the write-up is aimed at misleading folks into the Sacred Name Movement (SNM), a sect linked to the Hebrew Roots Movement (HRM).

The SNM began within the Church of God (Seventh-Day), propagated by Clarence Dodd in the 1930s.

It seeks to conform Christianity to its ‘Hebrew Roots’ in practice, belief and worship. SNM groups advocate for the use of the “sacred name” of God as Yahweh (though there’s no agreement on this) and Jesus as Yahshua (varied as well) and keeping Old Testament laws.

Now, when a new religious movement claims to have “the only truth,” or an exclusive understanding of an old truth, its truth claims need to be critically examined.

To this end, I will be rebutting the main arguments in this pamphlet. Quotes from it will appear in blue:

It appears that in A.D. 325, a new god was conceived within the black and white marble halls of Roman Catholicism … Constantine’s intention at Nicea was to create an entirely new god for his empire who would unite all religious factions under one deity. Presbyters were asked to debate and decide who their god would be. Delegates argued among themselves, expressing personal motives for inclusion of particular writings that promoted the finer traits of their own special deity (pp. 1-2).

Each sentence here is patently false. There was no Roman Catholicism in the 4th century. Not one single person at the Council of Nicea adheres to the definitive doctrines of Roman Catholicism.

The intention of the Council of Nicaea was to settle a Christological controversy caused by a presbyter named Arius who denied the deity of Christ. It was never about “creating a god.”

It is a rather shameless and deceptive undertaking for someone to distort a documented historical event that is well-attested to by ancient sources in the name of presenting the truth. Even a heathen shouldn’t stoop that low. Here are three standard reference works on the council of Nicea:

Encyclopedia Britannica

New World Encyclopedia

Encyclopedia.com

Throughout the meeting, howling factions were immersed in heated debates, and the names of 53 gods were tabled for discussion. “As of yet, no god had been selected by the council, and so they balloted in order to determine that matter. . . For one year and five months the balloting lasted. . .” God’s Book of Eskra, Prof. S.L. MacGuire’s translation, Salisbury, 1922, chapter xlviii, paragraphs 36, 41 (p. 2-3).

Again, we are treated to mythical assertions. I personally wonder why, of all the councils in church history, Nicea seems to be the favourite dream works studio of conspiracy fiction writers and anti-Christians who re-write history when it doesn’t play their game.

Kerrie laces this paragraph with a source to feign legitimacy, but that is a smoking gun right there.

An entry of the quote and God’s Book of Eskra into Google search engine shows that this quote and its alleged source is identical on all SNM websites. These guys just mindlessly parrot and copy one another without any recourse to intellectual scrutiny.

God’s Book of Eskra is not a historical source. It was an occult legendary book called Oahspe, written by a dentist named John Ballow Newbrough and published in 1882.

Newbrough admitted his work came from spirits (“automatic writing”) without any prior text before him.

The translator “Prof. S. L. MacGuire” was obviously made up since the Oahspe was already written in English.

A search of “S. L. MacGuire God’s Book of Eskra” on WorldCat (a compendium of 71,000 library catalogues in 112 countries) turns up no relevant hit.

These SNM websites got the quote in question from one original source: Tony Bushby’s Forged Origins of the New Testament (2007). Bushby must have fabricated “Prof. S.L. MacGuire” and his alleged “translation” to make Newbrough’s book appear as an ancient source.

So there are three strikes against this one: a false claim, a fraudulent reference and a demonic source. Absolutely invalid.

I invite my readers to read about the council of Nicaea from both Judaic and Catholic sources and draw their own conclusions:

Encyclopedia Judaica

Catholic Encyclopedia

Constantine was the ruling spirit at Nicaea and he ultimately decided upon a new god for them. To involve British factions, he ruled that the name of the Druid god, “Hesus,” be joined with the Eastern Saviour-god, Krishna (Krishna is Sanskrit for Christ), and thus “Hesus Krishna” [Jesus Christ] would be the official name of the New Roman god (p. 3).

The post-Nicene detour of Roman churches into Arianism and the necessity of the Council of Constantinople to redress this is one proof that Constantine wasn’t the ruling spirit at Nicaea.

The Gaulish god, Esus, has no connection with Jesus (an Anglicized name). This writer fondly imagines that the people at Nicea and the Celtic Druids spoke English language.

According to this goofy reasoning, Constantine picked a Celtic god, joined it to an Indian god to become a “new Roman god”! This nonsense is beyond belief.

The name Jesus is an English transliteration of the Hebrew Yeshua or Yehoshua and Greek Iēosus. It literally means “the LORD (or Yahweh) is salvation.” Centuries before a council held in Nicaea, the Bible speaks of several people bearing this name:

Jesus Barabbas, a prisoner released by Pontius Pilate before Jesus was crucified (Mt. 27:16-17 REB); an ancestor of Jesus (Lk. 3:29); Joshua, son of Nun (Acts 7:45); Jesus Justus, a Jewish Christian who with the apostle Paul sent greetings to the Colossians (Col. 4:11) (Nelson’s New Illustrated Bible Dictionary, ed. Ronald Youngblood, Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1995, p. 658).

Whether it’s spelled Jesus, Joshua or Yeshua, it means the same: the Lord our salvation (Matt. 1:21).

Changing a name from one language to another doesn’t change the meaning of the name nor does it change the character or identity of the person.

Following long-standing heathen custom, Constantine used the official gathering and the Roman apotheosis decree to legally deify two deities as one, and did so by democratic consent. A new god was proclaimed and “officially” ratified by Constantine (p. 3).

This is straight from the fevered imaginations of Tony Bushby, but with a twist. While Bushby asserts the Bible was formed at Nicea, Kerrie French and his SNM comrades claim a “new god” was proclaimed there.

Notice his choice of words too. He vaguely refers to “heathen custom,” that a man gathered people to “legally deify two deities as one” by “democratic consent.” This is gobbledygook, even by heathen standards.

If there was such a decree, it would be documented. The writer resorts to demagoguery in place of facts. He strings together big words to dazzle his uninformed readers when in actual fact, he’s saying nonsense.

Some authorities, who have spent their entire lives studying the origins of names, believe that “Jesus” actually means— “Hail Zeus!” For Iesous in Greek is “Hail Zeus.” That is, “Ie” translates as “Hail” and “sous” or “sus” is Zeus. Dictionary of Christian Lore and Legend, J.C.J. Melford, 1983, p. 126.

 No quotation from the source is given, but on some SNM websites where this line was copied from, the quote appears to have been astutely wrenched from its context.

Notice that the writer talks about “some authorities who have spent their entire lives studying the origins of names,” but gave only one source that can’t even be termed an authority. This is cultic politics of language: maximal claims, minimal output.

Initially, he says Jesus was an amalgam of a Celtic and Indian god which became a Roman god, now he says the name is of a Greek god. This writer couldn’t even convince himself.

The Greek word for “hail” is xaipe or xaipete and it’s not a constituent of the name Iēosus. The name Iēosus is found in the Greek Septuagint, a translation dating to the B.C. era.

First century works of Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus, written in Koine Greek also refers to at least 20 different people with the name Iēosus (Jesus) (Paul Eddy and Gregory Boyd, The Jesus Legend, Baker Pub., 2007, 129).

That the name ends with “sus” or “sous” furnishes no evidence that it’s from Zeus. That a certain word or word part sounds like another is no proof of commonality.

For instance, it would be insane for someone to say that Yahuwah was stolen from the Sumerian monster deity named Huwawa because of the phonetic similarity. Yet this is the dark, twisted logic being touted by SNM adherents.

Apparently, this new fabricated name was applied throughout the pages of the Scripture’s Renewed Covenant (NT), radically altering every reference of Yahusha יהושׁע (H#3091) the Messiah to “Hail Zeus-Krishna” (Jesus Christ). Deceptively, the reference to Christ was never a Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word Messiah, but it specifically comes from the name of a pagan god, Christna, most commonly spelled Krishna (p. 3)

Bear in mind that Sacred Name and Hebrew Roots adherents deny the validity of the Greek New Testament, asserting that it was “originally” written in Aramaic – a claim that is rather a testament to their profound delusion.

Thus, when this writer calls the NT “Renewed covenant,” he is peddling an agendum that denies the plain differences between the Old and New covenants.

He also alleges that the Bible has been “radically altered.” On pg. 4, he writes: “Who said the Scriptures remain pure and undefiled? Should we not be wise to discern what else has been changed, manipulated, or removed?”

This is the convenient cop out cultists mouth when they realise their folly cannot be substantiated by Scripture. The NT was written in Greek, so there wasn’t any need for the Hebrew name of Jesus to be expunged from it. Moreover, His Hebrew name is Yeshua (or Jeshua) not Yahusha.

John F. Sawyer, Professor of Religious Studies at University of Newcastle, England, has this to say about the word “Christ”:

“The word is derived from the common biblical Hebrew word māšîah, meaning ‘anointed.’ In Greek it is transcribed as messias and translated as christos. In the Hebrew Bible, the term is most often used of kings, whose investiture was marked especially by anointing oil” (The Oxford Companion to the Bible, eds. Bruce Metzger and Michael Coogan, Oxford Press, 1993, 513).

The birth of what is known today as CHRISTIANITY did not exist until Constantine united his empire under the name of his newly fabricated god “Jesus Christ” … Simply, no one was a Christian prior to A.D. 325. All the churches that claim to be Christian today are merely daughters of the Roman stylized system of false worship of “Hail Zeus-Christna” (p. 4).

Certainly, once you eliminate the Lord Jesus from the equation and dismiss the validity of Scripture, the next logical step is to throw 17 centuries of historic, orthodox Christianity under the bus. What you end up with might appear ‘Christian’ but it’s the kingdom of the cults.

This is the logical plinth on which Jehovah’s Witnesses, Mormonism, and Christian Science cults are based.

They first have to abjure church history to justify their own existence. That way, they can easily claim to be “restoring ancient Christianity.” The logic is: no one got it right until we alone came on the scene.

At least, most of them aren’t ridiculous to the extent of declaring that no one was a Christian prior to 325 A.D.

The Christianized churches continue to utilize the fabricated terms to replace Yahuah יהוה with “the Lord,” and perpetuate the contrived tradition of replacing Yahusha ,יהושׁע the Messiah, with “Jesus Christ” (Hail Zeus-Christna) (p. 5).

Notice a pattern: Each time the writer refers to Jesus, he finds it necessary to include Zeus-Krishna in brackets beside it. This is aimed to program an unwary reader’s mind to associate the name of Jesus with pagan deities even though this lacks a factual basis. This is Pavlovian brainwashing, utilized by most cults.

In the Old Testament, we see that God revealed Himself by different names. In more than 6,000 times, He is revealed as YHWH (often pronounced as Yahweh) which is likely related to the verb “to be” (Ex. 6:6; 20:2).

He is designated as Adonai, which means “lord” or “master” 449 times. Adhon reveals God’s authority as Master, One who is sovereign in His rule (Ps. 110:1; Hos. 12:14).

He is also designated as Elohim, a plural Hebrew form more than 2,000 times (Dt. 32:17; Josh. 3:10) (Paul Enns, The Moody Handbook of Theology, Moody Press, 2008, 201).

Therefore, when a group places an extreme emphasis on a certain name of God and builds a castle around it, alleging it is “suppressed information” a cultic mindset is being instilled into its adherents.

Interestingly, in Scripture, the term elohim is also used as a generic term for “god” as when speaking of the Philistine god Dagon (“elohim” 1 Sam. 5:7); Chemosh, the god (“elohim”) of Ammon and Moab (Jgs. 11:24) and Milcom (1 Kgs 11:33). But SNM don’t push out articles on the name elohim.

Here is the point: the context and usage of “lord” determines who is being referred to. When apostle Paul quotes Psalm 117:1 “Praise the LORD (Yahweh), all you nations…”, and then writes, “Praise the Lord (Kurios), all you Gentiles…” (Rom.15:11), every right thinking reader can see that Yahweh is equivalent to the Lord Jesus.

Whether in Greek (Iēsous), Latin (Iesus), Arabic (Yesu), French (Jésus) or Yoruba/Igbo (Jesu), the name of Jesus carries the same power and authority in setting free men from sin and Satan.

The writer says false religious organizations don’t observe “Yahuah’s sacred seventh-day Sabbaths and/or set-apart Feast Days of Scripture … [They are] lacking in the knowledge of the truth unto salvation and the power bestowed in the true sacred names” (p. 7).

Let no legalist or “sacred name” nutter lead us to make an idol out of any earthly language and bring us back under bondage of the Old Testament laws.

This pamphlet states its agenda when it says: “Names have meanings, but it is not proper to translate them” (p. 10).

SNM heretics have so much idolized Hebrew language that they believe any translation of Jesus’ name into any language on earth other than Hebrew must be despised and demonized in every sort of way – whether by hook or crook. That is the fundamental assumption underlying this excuse of a pamphlet.

Nothing in it is new however. For many years, enemies of the Gospel have tried in vain to parallel Jesus with Attis, Mithras, Krishna or Horus.

The difference now is that the atheists, agnostics and skeptics have left it up to modern day Judaizers who claim to be Christians to regurgitate their delusion.

Allah’s Irredeemable Gaffes about Christians and Jews

All through the Quran we are told that Allah is “all wise” and “all knowing,” but there are several places in the Quran that belie this attribute.

In this article, I will be fact checking what he says about Jews and Christians to prove the case against the all-wise and all-knowing claims of the Allah of the Quran.

1. Sura 2:139

Say (unto the People of the Scripture): “Dispute ye with us concerning Allah when He is our Lord and your Lord? Ours are our works and yours your works. We look to Him alone.”

A contrast of the attributes, characteristics and nature of the God of the Bible with the Allah of Islam clearly reveal that both are miles apart.

The historical evidence of Islam’s theology also disqualifies Allah as the God of the Bible. The Arabian word for God is Ilah, but the “Allah” Muhammad preached is neither from Judaism nor Christianity but Arabian paganism.

God’s name or the Tetragrammation (YHVH or YHWH) occurs no less than 7,000 times in the Hebrew Scriptures. This name was rendered as “LORD” or “Yahweh” and later “Jehovah” – pronounced with the vowels from Adonai which means ‘Lord.’

From the names of many Old Testament characters we can see that Yahweh was widely known as God’s name. For example:

Adonijah (My Lord is Yahweh)
Elijah (My God is Yahweh)
Azariah (Yahweh has helped)
Hezekiah (Yahweh strengthens)
Isaiah (Yahweh is salvation)
Jeremiah (Yahweh has uplifted)
Joshua (Yahweh is salvation)

If the ancient Jews knew Allah as their Lord as the Quran claims, at least one individual in the OT would have been named after him. So Azariah would be “Azarallah,” Isaiah would be “Isa’allah” and Adonijah would be “Adonallah.”

Allah couldn’t be the Christian God either, because the New Testament revealed God as the Father of Jesus Christ – a designation that Allah vehemently repudiates.

As a matter of historical record, it was impossible for those who penned the Bible to speak of Allah as God because up until the 7th century when Muhammad made Allah into the “only God”, Allah was the name of a pagan deity.

The Bible was completed long before Muhammad was born and there’s no way Christians would take one of the pantheon of pagan Arabia as their Lord.

2. Sura 2:140

Do you say that Abraham and Ishmael, and Isaac and Jacob and his children were Jews or Christians?’ Say ‘Do you know better or Allah and who is more unjust than he who hides the testimony that he has from Allah? And Allah is not unaware of what you do.”

This verse presents us with a farrago of categorical confusion and befuddling ignorance.

Abraham was a Chaldean from Ur (modern Iraq). Ishmael was his illegitimate son and was excluded from God’s covenant.

Isaac was the promised son with whom God formed His covenant and he gave birth to Jacob (Israel) who fathered the 12 tribes. The 12 tribes were Jews, not Christians. There was no Christianity until about 20 centuries later.

This is not about someone “hiding a testimony,” it’s about Allah knowing no better than humans.

The general Hebrew word for God is “El” or “Elohim” and the names of OT figures and places bear this out e.g. AbimaEL, BethEL, SamuEL, JoEL, JezreEL etc.

Abraham named his son Ishmael (Ishma + EL) meaning “God hears.” If he was a Muslim or knew God as Allah, his son’s name would have been Ishmnallah.

No amount of semantic acrobatics can rescue Allah and his Quran from his numerous fraudulent claims.

3. Sura 2:143

Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that ye may be witnesses against mankind, and that the messenger may be a witness against you. And We appointed the qiblah which ye formerly observed only that We might know him who followeth the messenger, from him who turneth on his heels. In truth it was a hard (test) save for those whom Allah guided…”

Here, we see Allah blowing hot-cold-hot. In Sura 2:125, the author of the Quran had said “Take as your place of worship where Abraham stood to pray.”

By this he meant facing the Ka’aba in Mecca. But when Muhammad fled to Medina where majority of Jews lived, he tried to copy their religion, so he led his followers to face the direction of Jerusalem while praying.

The Jews and some of his followers questioned this conflicting “revelation” and a verse quickly rolled down the hill:

“The foolish of the people will say: What hath turned them from the qiblah which they formerly observed? Say: Unto Allah belong the East and the West. He guideth whom He will unto a straight path” (2:142).

This led to the vs. 143 quoted above. Muhammad said his blowing hot and cold on the qibla was a test from Allah after all, Allah guides whoever he wills to a straight path. What an absurd excuse for a god who purposely deceives his own subjects.

But wait for it, Allah changed his mind again about the prayer direction when Muhammad was frustrated at the Jews’ rejection of his prophethood:

4. Sura 2:144

We have seen the turning of thy face to heaven (for guidance, O Muhammad). And now verily We shall make them turn (in prayer) toward a qiblah which is dear to thee. So turn thy face towards the Inviolable Place of worship, and ye (O Muhammad), wheresoever ye may be, turn your faces (when ye pray) toward it. Lo! Those who have received the Scripture know that (this revelation) is the Truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.”

So Muslims were told to face the Ka’aba they had faced initially! Interestingly, these revelations and counter-revelations are in the same Sura 2. One would expect a coherent thought from even a normal human being.

The big snag: Abraham and Ishmael were never in Mecca and never built the Kaaba.

Abraham resided in Hebron (Jerusalem) and there is no reason he would move his family and animals 1,000 miles through an uncharted desert to build a temple. The People of the Book actually know the truth.

Sura 3:97 says there are “clear signs” in “the station of Abraham” at Mecca and those who go on hajj should visit the shrine.

This station of Abraham (Maqam Ibrahim) is located inside the courtyard of the Holy mosque of Mecca. In there is a glass encasing a stone with footprints, allegedly those of Abraham when he built the Kaaba. Muslims pray towards the house of rocks in this shrine daily. This is pure idolatry and falsehood.

Muhammad was born about 2,500 years after Abraham and there are reasons to reject his claims. There’s no way a worker building something would ever stand so long at the same spot that his feet would make a mark on a solid natural stone and this will still be visible after two millennia.

Credulity has its limit. No scientific evidence exists to prove that the marks and stone at Maqam Ibrahim date as old as it’s asserted.

Besides, the description of the station of Abraham in Sura 3:97 does not fit the Maqam Ibrahim in Mecca (which is located outside the Kaaba temple) but instead fits the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem where, according to Jewish tradition, is the rock where Abraham tried to sacrifice Isaac.

5. Sura 2:145

And even if you bring to those who have been given the Book every sign they would not follow your qiblah, nor can you be a follower of their qiblah, neither are they the followers of each other’s qiblah, and if you follow their desires after the knowledge that has come to you, then you shall most surely be among the unjust.”

This is lame. First, Jews and Christians have no qibla. The true God is a Spirit and He is worshipped in spirit and truth. And where there is true spiritual worship, there are no litany of regulations for prayer, complicated rituals or bondage to any fixed direction or mode of praying (Jn. 4:24)

Second, there’s no justifiable reason for Jews and Christians to follow the Islamic qibla since Mecca has no significance in both Judaism and Christianity.

The Bible mentions the city of Jerusalem about 800 times but says nothing about Mecca or Medina. Muhammad’s feeble attempt to tie the Jewish patriarchs and prophets to Mecca destroys Islam’s foundations.

6. Sura 2:146

Those unto whom We gave the Scripture recognize (this revelation) as they recognize their sons. But lo! a party of them knowingly conceal the truth.”

On the contrary, the Quran contradicts the Bible so much that it is clear that both revelations cannot be from the same God.

There is no single Bible teaching that the Quran fully explains.

There is no single Bible story that is correctly relayed in the Quran.

There is no Bible character that has not been historically and morally assassinated in the Quran.

But rather than owning up to his cluelessness and forgeries, the author of the Quran blames his irredeemable gaffes on some Jews and Christians who “knowingly conceal the truth.” How convenient.

7. Sura 4:163

We have revealed our will to you as we have revealed it to Noah and to the prophets who came after him; as we revealed it to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes, Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, Solomon and to David We gave the Psalms.

Here again we see a mish-mash rearrangement of Bible characters and riotous ignorance.

Noah, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and his 12 sons were patriarchs, not prophets and they all came after Job.

Aaron was a Levite priest while David and Solomon were kings.

The author of the Quran must have heard about the Jewish prophets, but he didn’t know their order and chronology. So much for an all-knowing deity.

This list also omits major Jewish prophets like Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel and Samuel. No informed Jew will ever confuse patriarchs with prophets or omit major prophets from a list as this.

The Quran doesn’t even appeal to human reasoning. A revelation that is so beneath human intelligence can’t be from God. It’s impossible. It requires an abdication of elementary logic.

8. Sura 5:13

And because of their breaking the covenant, We have cursed them and made hard their hearts. They change words from their context and forget a part of that whereof they were admonished. Thou wilt not cease to discovery treachery from all save a few of them. But bear with them and pardon them. Lo! Allah loveth the kindly.”

If we strip this verse of its hateful tone, what remains of it are vapid accusations.

Allah (or whoever is speaking here) says he made a covenant with Christians but says nothing about the nature of that covenant or precisely when it was broken.

One thing is clear however, none of Allah’s curses can affect true Christians. This was a diversionary tactic. To justify his deceptions, Muhammad was always projecting his forgeries and forgetfulness onto his opponents.

But he failed to explain why Jews and Christians would alter their own sacred books for centuries just to disprove a man whose moral, ethical and spiritual credentials already disqualify him as a true prophet. It makes no sense.

In Muhammad’s narcissistic bubble universe, centuries of Jewish and Christian history must have been corrupted or forgotten for him to be right! He accuses most Christians of treachery yet he endorsed treachery with non-Muslims.

In Sura 10:94, Allah commands Muhammad to go to the People of the Book – without nuances or distinctions – for confirmation of the truth, but when they told him inconvenient Bible truths, he accused them of treachery and forgery!

This is a heart hardened by Allah and Christians today need to pardon and bear with Muslims who act the same.

9. Sura 5:14

And with those who say: ‘Lo! we are Christians,” We made a covenant, but they forgot a part of that whereof they were admonished. Thereof We have stirred up enmity and hatred among them till the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will inform them of their handiwork.”

What a nice hobbyhorse. When Christians pointed out the numerous errors and lies in his recitations, Muhammad turned the blame on them and accused them of forgetting a covenant they made with Allah.

He used the divisions amongst some Christians he knew as “proof” so that his own infractions would be overlooked. It was a shell game where the real issue was buried beneath a rat’s nest.

So his Allah stirs up enmity in people yet he will condemn them for what he made them do. What an unjust and sadistic deity.

Islam has no evidence, all it has are stubborn claims; not even a theory of how it is possible for Jews and Christians to conceal or corrupt their Scriptures and thousands of extant manuscripts would tell otherwise, that the Bible is true and trustworthy.

When a record alleged to be from God is plagued with lies, blunders, contradictions and confusion, it’s intolerable for us to cover or excuse them to protect the image of a prophet or religion. These are evidences that the record is entirely man-made.

Answering the Witnesses: the Name “Jehovah”

Jehovah’s Witnesses believe they are the only true servants of God in the world today because they use God’s unique, personal name – Jehovah. According to them, this very name appears 7,000 times in the Hebrew scriptures but has been removed.

The fact is, the anglicized word “Jehovah” occurs nowhere in the Hebrew texts. The name that occurred was YHWH or JHVH which no one could exactly pronounce. This name was called the “Tetragrammation” (because of its four letters). The ancient Jews dreaded mispronouncing this name, so they used the name “Adonai” (meaning LORD) instead.

According to the Encyclopedia Judaica (Vol. 7, 680): “The true pronunciation of the name YHWH was never lost. Several early Greek writers of the Christian church testify that the name was pronounced ‘YAHWEH’ … At least until the destruction of the First Temple in 586 B.C.E this name was regularly pronounced with its proper vowels, as is clear from the Lachish letters, written shortly before that date.”

The Encyclopedia Britannica (1985, Micropedia, 12:804) agrees: “After the Exile (6th century B. C.), and especially from the 3rd century BC on, Jews ceased to use the name Yahweh for two reasons. As Judaism became a universal religion through its proselytizing in the Greco-Roman world, the more common noun elohim, meaning ‘god’ tended to replace Yahweh.”

Later in the Middle Ages, “the vowels of Adonai were attached to the consonant YHWH … [and] the word Jehovah resulted” (Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary, Thomas Nelson, 1995, 503). Therefore, the name “Jehovah” is really a man made term more so since there are no “J” or “V” sounds in Hebrew.

JWs point at the “Jehovah” in Psalm 83:18 and Isaiah 12:2, 26:4 of the King James version. This really proves nothing because the name was first coined circa 13th century A.D. and was not popular until the 16th century. The “Jehovah” name was used in William Tyndale’s translation and this is why it appears in the KJV.

In their brochure, The Divine Name That will Endure Forever, none of the archaeological proofs they presented for the name “Jehovah” date earlier than the medieval period.

JWs quote Exodus 3:15, that God must always be addressed as Jehovah but a study of the Old Testament shows that this was not the only name for God. Many times, God revealed Himself as the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Jesus Christ never addressed God as Jehovah, He began His prayers addressing God as “Our Father…” (Matthew 6:9). He prayed at the cross “Father forgive them…” (Lk. 23:34).

While the Jews accused Jesus of several things, they never accused Him of not using the name “Jehovah.” If God must always be referred to as Jehovah, then Jesus was in error. Christians also address God as “Abba Father” (Rom. 8:15, Gal. 4:16).

Nowhere does the name “Jehovah” occur in all the 5,000 Greek New Testament manuscripts – since it’s not a Greek word – yet JWs have smuggled it into the New Testament of their own New World version!

Granted, their name “Jehovah’s Witnesses” was adopted in 1931, it was not the name their founder gave them. The text they used, Isaiah 43:10 says “You are my witnesses,” declares Jehovah,“Yes, my servant whom I have chosen…”

Reading the whole chapter, however, it’s clear that it refers to the nation of Israel as a collective witness to God’s majesty, faithfulness and truth. To take this verse referring to Israel – 700 years before Christ – and claim it is fulfilled in a modern day religious group 1900 years after Christ is a gross misuse of Scripture.

In the New Testament, the main focus was for Christians to be witnesses of Jesus Christ.

Acts 1:8 “But you will receive power when the holy spirit comes upon you, and you will be witnesses of me [Jesus] in Jerusalem, in all Ju·deʹa and Sa·marʹi·a, and to the most distant part of the earth.”

Acts 2:32 “God resurrected this Jesus, and of this we are all witnesses.

Acts 4:33 “And with great power the apostles continued giving the witness about the resurrection of the Lord Jesus

JWs desperately latch on to Acts 15:14 that God takes out “a people for his name” and they are the ones. This passage gives no name, so how did JWs arrive at their conclusion? Are they saying that God didn’t have a witness for 18 centuries until they were founded? This also leads us to another fact: there is only one name by which Christians are to be identified and that is the name of Jesus Christ.

a) In whose name should we meet together? Mt. 18:20, 1 Cor. 5:4.

b) Demons are subject to whose name? Lk. 10:19, Acts 16:18

c) Repentance and forgiveness should be preached in whose name? Lk. 24:47

d) By whose name and no other do we obtain salvation? Acts 4:12

e) In whose name are we to pray? John 14:13

f) In whose name did the early disciples heal the sick and expel demons? Acts 3:6, 16:18

g) Whose name is above all other name? Phil. 2:9-11, Eph. 1:21

The answer is Jesus Christ, not Jehovah. God has split the human language and He may not expect us to use the same name for Him all over the world. Aside this, God has revealed Himself not just by name, but more importantly by His Word. “…for thou hast magnified thy word above all thy name” Psalm 138:2 (KJV).